Kaziranga
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Kaziranga Geography

Kaziranga National Park Geography

It is refuge for the world's largest population of Great One-horned Rhinoceros. Kaziranga has the highest density of tigers in the World and is declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006. The park has many Elephant, Water Buffaloes and Swamp Deers. It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by Birdlife International for conservation of avifaunal species. The park has achieved notable progress in wildlife conservation despite several constraints. Kaziranga is a vast stretch of tall elephant grass, marshland and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests crisscrossed by four main rivers Brahmaputra, Diphlu, Mora Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri and has numerous small water bodies. Kaziranga has been the theme of several books, documentaries and songs. The park celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2005 since its establishment in 1905 as a reserve forest. Three seasons can be distinguished in Kaziranga National Park. Summer, which is dry and windy, extends from mid-February to May with mean maximum and minimum temperatures of 37 degree Celsius and 7 degree Celsius, respectively. The monsoon occurs from May to September when conditions are warm and humid. Most of the rainfall around 222 mm falls during this season. Winters are from November to mid-February with conditions being mild and dry, and maximum and minimum temperatures being 25 degree Celsius and 5 degree Celsius respectively. November to April is the best time to visit Kaziranga National Park. The park is closed from June to September. Kaziranga National Park is located on the edge of the Eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. The Park lies at the edge of eastern Himalayas, with the mighty Brahmaputra flowing in its vicinity. Spread over the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of Assam, the Kaziranga National Park covers a vast area of 858.98 km2. The park is located in the Indomalaya ecozone, and the dominant biomass of the region are Brahmaputra valley semi-evergreen forest of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest biome and a frequently flooded variant of the Terai-Duar savanna and grassland of the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrub-lands biome. There is a difference in altitude between the eastern and western areas of the park, with the western side being at a lower altitude. The western reaches of the park are dominated by grasslands. Tall elephant grass is found on higher ground, while short grasses cover the lower grounds surrounding the beels or flood-created ponds. The park lies in the flood plains of Brahmaputra River and so every year the region is completely drenched with high water level. Brahmaputra River forms the northern and eastern boundaries. Other notable rivers within the park are the Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri. The land of Kaziranga is made fertile with the alluvial soil formed by the erosion and the silt deposition of Brahmaputra River to make it more eligible for agriculture at the outskirts of the park area. The park is approximately 40 km in length from east to west, and 13 km in breadth from north to south. Four main types of vegetation exist in this park. These are alluvial inundated grasslands, alluvial savanna woodlands, tropical moist mixed deciduous forest, and tropical semi evergreen forest. There are many different aquatic floras in the lakes and ponds, and along the river shores. The invasive water hyacinth is very common, often choking the water bodies, but it is cleared during destructive floods. The river Brahmaputra is prone to face flood situation almost every year when rainy season arrives. A large portion of the park gets submerged into the water. However, state govt takes appropriate measures to reduce the loss of livestock of both animals and humans but still Govt machinery cannot undo the topographical and geographical nature made scenario which Mother Nature imposes on the national park whenever it wants to. Over all, the geography of Kaziranga National Park is suitable, life supporting and wonderful for the wild animals to live in it if we just leave behind the fact of rain floods.

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