Kaziranga
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Manas National Park

Fast Facts
Status World Heritage Site, National Park, Tiger Reserve, Elephant & Biosphere Reserve
Location
North-West Assam State in North-East India
Area
950 Sq. Kms. (Tiger Reserve Area: 2837.12 Sq. Km.)
Establishment
Wildlife Sanctuary(1928), Tiger Reserve(1973), World Heritage Site(1985)
Best time to Visit
November to March
Nearby Airport & Railways
Barpeta Town (20Kms) & Guwahati (180Kms)
Rare Species
Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur, Pygmy Hog, Water Buffalo
Flora & Fauna Species
53 Mammals, 350 Birds, 22 Reptiles, 78 Butterflies, 550 Plants species
Open for Visitors
From November to April

Kaziranga National Park

The name of the park is originated from the Manas River, which is named after the serpent goddess Manasa. The Manas river is a major tributary of Brahmaputra River, which passes through the heart of the national park. Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a Wildlife Sanctuary, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National park of Bhutan. Elephant reserve located here is called Chirang Ripu Elephant Reserve between Sonkosh and Dhansiri rivers as its Western & Eastern boundary. It comes under Project Elephant. The park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur and Pygmy Hog.Manas is famous for its population of the Wild water buffalo. Manas National Park is situated on the foothills of the Himalayas and a part of it extends to Bhutan. It was declared a sanctuary on October 01, 1928 and was designated a World Heritage site in December 1985.

Manas Tiger Reserve
Core Zone Areas
Buffer Zone Areas
Forest Name
Area (Sq.Kms)
Forest Name
Area (Sq.Kms)
Manas Reserve Forest
120.00
Kachugaon Division
819.06
North Kamrup R.F.
271.02
Haltugaon Division
592.40
Panbari Reserve Forest
16.30
Aie Valley Division
349.48
Kahitama Reserve Forest
34.86
North Kamrup Division
530.19
Kokilabari Reserve Forest
77.59
Western Assam Wildlife Div.
26.22
Total Core Zone
519.77
Total Buffer Zone
2317.35
The sanctuary is home to a great variety of wildlife, including tiger, Golden Langur, Wild Buffalo, Hispid Hare, Pigmy Hog, Capped Langur, Indian one-horned Rhinoceros, Elephant, Gaur, Hog Deer, etc. Manas known for its Project Tigers, Rhinos & Elephants, and is Assam's one of the two Tiger projects. The scenic beauty and rare wealth of wild life combine with this unique world heritage site to offer one of the most enthralling experiences.

How to reach
Manas National Park is located in North-West of Assam state in East India. One can reach this World Heritage site by all three modes of transport i.e. by flight, train and road.

By Flight: The city of Guwahati has the closest airport (176Kms) and this is the most feasible option for those who are arriving by air. The airport is connected to international destinations such as Bangkok. It is also well connected to most of the important Indian cities such as Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi. Flights operate from smaller airports such as Itanagar, Shillong and Tawang to Guwahati as well. On reaching Guwahati airport, one can travel by road to Manas National Park. Taxi services are available at all important airport for park.

By Train: The closest railhead is located at Barpeta Road. This is situated around 44 kilometers away from the park. Although it is a nearby railway station, still Guwahati is the best options as it is a big & important station of Assam state with all major facilities and has a very good train connectivity with other important cities and tourist destinations like : Delhi, Mumbai, Varanasi, Patna, Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Vishakapatnam, Bangalore etc. Taxis are available from the station to Manas National Park.

By Road: One can reach the wildlife sanctuary using taxis and buses from the city of Guwahati. Guwahati is the closest major transit center and it is situated 175 kilometers away. The National Highway No.31 adjoins Barpeta Road (not Barpeta town), the headquarters of Manas Tiger Reserve. The nearest point on the southern boundary of Manas National Park is 22 kms from the NH 31, and 19 kms from the town itself. Barpeta Road is 176 km from Guwahati, from where one can drive to the Mothanguri area. The journey takes about 51/2 - 6 hours by road. The eastern sector is also accessed from either Barpeta Road (if coming by train) or from Guwahati. Pathsala town, 100 kms from Guwahati, on NH 31 is the main entry point. From here the road travels north on NH 152 for 30 kms to reach Lakhi Baazar, the entry point. This journey takes about 41/2 - 5 hours by road from Guwahati airport. The nearest rail junction is at Barpeta Road and the most convenient airport is at Guwahati. Distances: Guwahati - Bansbari : 196 kms; Barpeta Road - Bansbari: 20kms; Bansbari - Mothanguri: 40 kms Guwahati - Pathsala : 100 kms; Pathsala - Kaklabari: 30 kms Public transport (bus) is available to Lakhi Baazar from Pathsala and long distances buses connect both Pathsala and Barpeta Road from major towns/cities on the east and west.

Tourist Attractions
There is no way to describe Manas National Park. Lying on the foothills of the Himalaya, Manas is the most stunning pristine wildlife habitat in India, comparable to the best in the world in the beauty of its spectacular landscape. A Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve - a unique distinction. This Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forest Terrestrial Eco-region is also the richest in species of all Indian wildlife areas and the only known home for the rare and endangered Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur and Pygmy Hog.

The focus point of Manas National Park is the enchanting Manas River, named after the serpent goddess Manasa. It is the largest Himalayan tributary of the mighty Brahmaputra. Coming down the Bhutan Hills from the north, the crystal clear waters of the Manas river runs through the heart of the 500 sq. km core area of Manas Park. The main tourist spot of Mothanguri, on the northern border of Manas with Bhutan, is situated on the banks of this river.

Flora
Vegetation: The Burma Monsoon Forests of Manas lie on the borders between the Indo-Gangetic and Indo-Malayan bio-geographical realms and is part of the Brahmaputra Valley Biogeographic Province. The combination of Sub-Himalayan Bhabar Terai formation with riverine succession leading up to Sub-Himalayan mountain forest makes it one of the richest biodiversity areas in the world. The main vegetation types are:
• Sub-Himalayan Light Alluvial Semi-Evergreen forests in the northern parts.
• East Himalayan mixed Moist and Dry Deciduous forests (the most common type).
• Low Alluvial Savanna Woodland
• Assam Valley Semi-Evergreen Alluvial Grasslands which cover almost 50% of the Park.

Much of the riverine dry deciduous forest is at an early successional stage. It is replaced by moist deciduous forest away from water courses, which is succeeded by semi-evergreen climax forest in the northern part of the park. A total of 543 plants species have been recorded from the core zone. Of these, 374 species are dicotyledons (including 89 trees), 139 species monocotyledons and 30 are Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.

The Park's common trees include Aphanamixis polystachya, Anthocephalus chinensis, Syzygium cumini, S. formosum, S. oblatum, Bauhinia purpurea, Mallotus philippensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Actinodaphne obvata, Bombax ceiba, Sterculia villosa, Dillenia indica, D. pentagyna, Careya arborea, Lagerstroemia parviflora, L.speciosa, Terminalia bellirica, T. chebula, Trewia polycarpa, Gmelina arborea, Oroxylum indicum and Bridelia spp. The Grasslands are dominated by Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum naranga, Phragmites karka, Arundo donax, Dillenia pentagyna, Phyllanthus emblica, Bombax ceiba, and species of Clerodendrum, Leea, Grewia, Premna and Mussaenda

Fauna
The sanctuary has recorded 53 species of mammals, more than 350 species of birds, more than 22 species of reptiles, and 3 species of amphibians. Out of these wildlife, 21 mammals are India’s Schedule I mammals and 31 of them are threatened. The fauna of the sanctuary include Asian Elephants, Indian Rhinoceros, Gaurs, Asian Water Buffaloes, Barasingha, Tigers, Leopards, Clouded Leopards, Asian golden cat, Capped Langurs, Golden Langurs, Assamese Macaques, Slow Loris, Hoolock Gibbons, Smooth-coated Otters, Sloth Bears, Barking Deer, Hog Deer, Sambar Deer and Chital.The park is well known for its rare and endangered wildlife which is not found anywhere else in the world like the Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur and Pygmy Hog.
Prominent Mammals in Manas
Hoolock Gibbon
Asiatic Water Buffalo
Pygmy Hog
Sambar
Tiger
Leopard
Indian Civet
Dhole
Indian Muntjac
Capped Leaf Monkey
Golden Leaf Monkey
Malay Giant Squirrel
Asamese Macaque
Hispid Hare
Swamp Deer
Himalayan Striped Squirrel
Wild Boar
Indian Elephant
Indian Flying Fox
Indian Pangolin

Manas houses more than 350 species of birds out of which some of them are rarely seen in other forest areas.

Prominent Birds in Manas Forest
Little Grebe
Large Cormorant
Pond Heron
Spot-billed pelican
Little Green Heron
Spotted Forktail
Ruddy Shelduck
Large Egret
Black Necked Stork
Black-crested Baza
Chestnut Bittern
Laughing Thrush
Great Slaty Woodpecker
Oriental Turtle Dove
Emerald Dove
Red-crested Pochard
Crested Kingfisher
Eurasion Wigeon
Red-headed Trogon
Green Sandpiper
Green-billed Malkoha
Great Cormorant
Blue-bearded Bee-eater
Mountain Imperial Pigeon
Oriental Pied Hornbill
Rufous-necked Hornbills
Crested Serpent Eagle
Pallas's Fish Eagle
Large Hawk Cuckoo
Pied Falconet
Long Tailed Broadbill
Asian Barred Owlet
Marion Oriole
Scarlet Minivet
Greater Longtailed Drongo
Large Cuckooshrike
Large Woodshrike
Black0naped Monarch
Chested Tailed Starling
Hill Myna

Jungle Safari
Jeep Safari is one of the best way to explore the large area of Manas National Park. Watching the wild animals from open-roof jeep is a thrilling experience and during you trip, you can also click some photographs. It is always recommended to undertake safaris in open jeeps rather than your own vehicle as in open jeeps you can enjoy the birding in better way and can keep all you senses active during safari drive. As park has dense forest, safari with good quality of binoculars is must. Park is divided into ranges: Western-Panbari, Central-Banasbari & Eastern Bhuanpara.Some of the popular areas inside Manas National Park are: Bhuyan para, Rupahi, Gyati, Makhibaha, Uchilla, Agarang, Buraburi, Satutupa, Banasbari, Narayanguri, Kuribheel, Gabhorukhunda, Katajhar, Kaporpora etc. These names include some block-names which collectively constitutes Manas National Park.
Manas National Park Safaris
Safari Types
Morning Safari Timing
Evening Safari Timing
Jeep Safari
05:30 - to - 10:00 Hrs
14:30 - to - 17:30 Hrs
Elephant Safari
05:30 - to - 10:00 Hrs
15:00 - to - 17:30 Hrs

Just like Kaziranga National Park, here in Manas forest also you can enjoy elephant safari in jungle to explore the jungle in different way. Elephant rides are offered in the grasslands close to the park gate and also at Mathanguri. Maximum 04 visitors are allowed to ride on an elephant, at a time.A ride on the elephant back provide you a nice opportunity to get a close look of the wildlife, intrude into grasslands and enjoy the wild photography.
Nature Walk: You can take a nature walk along a 5-km long trail by the river around Mathanguri. On your walk, you will see a large number of birds and flowers. Your guide may also take you along the water streams to spot the wild animals, which is a wonderful experience.
Village Visit: You can also take a walk through the Bodo villages like Raguhbil and Gyatigaon close to the park. These villages have a co-operative women's weaving centre and you may also attend the music and dance session.

Boating
The Forest Department offer the boating facility in the river of the park. While boating through the river, you can see observe the wild animals. Boat riding charges are Rs. 2,000 for an 8-seater boat.

Climate & Weather
Manas National Park is located in Eastern Himalaya foothills with dense forest area. Eastern Himalayan mountains are believed to be arisen out of the bed of a sea resulting from the movement of tectonic plates forming earth crust. Manas river is the main river of this world heritage site which is also the tributary of Brahmaputra river. It passes through western region of park which later split into two separate river Beki & Bholkaduba. In addition to this, their are about 5 other small rivers that passes through park.

Manas National Park have 3 different types of vegetation: Alluvial grasslands, Moist, Dry deciduous forest & Semi-evergreen forests. The climate of the area is moderate with high humidity. Temperature remains neither too hot or too cold. Here also we can observe 3 different seasons: Winter, Summer & Monsoon. We can observe winters from October to February, Summer from March to middle of May and monsoon season from May to September. Here foothills along the northern boundary of forest area receives highest rainfall. Our overall experience says it is neither too hot like plains of North & Central India and nor extremely cold like North India in winters.

Best time to visit
Manas National Park is open for visitors from November to April. Remaining time it remains closed for visitors as it receives heavy rainfall from May to October during which safari tracks remain inaccessible by safari vehicles. As specified above, winter season prevails from November to February during which we can experience good bird-watching. Where as in months of Feb-Mar-April, temperature slightly rises causing good mammals sighting inside tiger reserve. Here we can notify about 55 mammals species and more than 350 birds species. In addition to this we can also notice huge variety, above 500 plants species. As park has dense forest, safari with good quality of binoculars is must. As their are limited accommodation facilities available, we recommend advance hotel booking for stay.
Accommodation
Manas National Park is a World Heritage site but due to political disturbance in last decade, tourist arrival is not as impressive as it deserves. But as not situations has changed, tourist arrival is now gaining momentum. At present limited accommodation options are available in Manas National Park. Here Banasbari Forest Lodge, Manas Forest Lodge & Mothanguri dormitories are the best suitable options.

Related links
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